J. E. GIBBS.
APPLIOATION FILED JAN.14,1914.
Patented July 21, 1914.
s E s s E N W W ATTO RNEY LEN JAMES EDWIN GIBBS, 0F CINCINNATI, OHIO, ASSIGNOR 0F ONE-HALF T0 WILLIAM A. BYE-ELY, OF BR-IDGEWATER, VIRGINIA.
Specification of Letters Patent.
Patented July 21, 1914:.
Application filed January 14, 1914. Serial No. 812,066.
T 0 all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JAMES E. G1BBs,-a citizen of the 'United States, residing at Cincinnati, in the county of Hamilton and State of Ohio, have invented a new and useful Door-Check, of which the following is a specification.
This invention has reference to improvements in door checks, and its object is to provide a door check which besides being of cheap but eilicicnt construction, is adapted for use in positions where door checks as heretofore constructed could not be used.
In accordance with the present invention the door check is constructed to be applied to a door frame having rabbets for doors on opposite faces of the frame and the door check is particularly adapted for use in connection with screen doors when applied to such a door frame on the side opposite from a storm door. In door frames as customarily made the space between the rabbets is usually not more than about two and one-half inches in breadth and consequently a door check cannot have its extreme length exceed about two and one-half inches, and for reasons which will hereinafter appear its extreme length must be materially less than two and one-half inches.
lVith door checks as heretofore constructed, and particularly the type known as pneumatic checks, it has been deemed necessary to make the pneumatic chamber of considerable length, and usually several times the diameter of the chamber. In the present invention the length being limited the body of the pneumatic chamber is increased in diameter in order that the relatively large volume of air necessary is present and the check is made to become more quickly effective than heretofore in order to arrest the closing movement of the door, which closing movement is usually caused by the action of a spring, and is sometimes accelerated by wind currents.
Because of the very short length of travel of the movable part of the improved door check, it is placed close to the hinged side of the door, and is so situated that its longitudinal axis is at an angle to the door frame to receive the first impact of the door in a direction substantially perpendicular to the plane of the door, so that the movable member of the check will yield easily without binding and quickly compress the confined air within the pneumatic chamber, and while the door is checked quickly this is accomplished without jar or undue strain because of the large volume and small depth of trapped air.
The invention will be best understood from a consideration of the following detailed description, taken in connection with. the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification, with the further under standing that while the drawings show a practical form of the invention, the latter is not confined to any strict conformity with the showing of the drawings, but may be changed and modified so long as such changes and modifications mark no material departure from the salient features of the invention.
In the drawings-Figure l is a perspective view of the upper part of a door frame and doors mounted thereon, showing the pneumatic check in position. Fig. 2 is a bottom lan view of the door check in the installe position. Fig. 3 is a section on the line 33 of Fig. 2 and showing the check in the partly compressed position. Fig. 4 is a section on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3 with distant parts omitted. Fig. 5 is a section of the check on the line 55 of Fig. 3, the supporting bracket for the barrel of the check being omitted.
Referring to the drawings there shown a cylinder 1 constituting the barrel of the check, and this cylinder is mounted upon a. bracket 2 shaped to receive the barrel 1 which may be soldered or otherwise secured to the bracket and the latter is made substantially rectangular in outline having elongated foot portions 3 along opposite sides forming flanges for the attachment of the door cheek to the top member 4 of a door frame on the upper inner facing board thereof in the space between the door receiving rabbets, this portion of the facing board being indicated at 5. The bracket 3 is longer along the longitudinal center line than at the sides and at one end it tapers away from the center toward the edges, as indicated at 6, and this taper is at an angle 'is shown at 7 in the drawings,
and of the barrel 1 carried while another door 9 is to the longitudinal center line of the bracket thereby corre- 'Sl'KlIldlllg to the angle at which the check is to be placed upon the door frame with respect to the length of the to member 4. thus indicating to the person installing the device the proper position of installation,
the only other precaution that the installer has to take being that the check should be placed at approximately acertain distance from the hinges of the door, say, in the neighborhood of six inches, and such a door being normally constrained toward the closed position by a spring 8 or in any suitable manner, indicated in Fig. 1
' as fast to the same door frame as the door 7,
; ring 13 \vhei'rseatcd in the groove 12 is such as to encroach a short distance upon the bore of the barrel 1.
v Adapted to the barrel 1 is a piston or plunger 14 terminating at one end in a laterally expanded head 15 of a diameter to "snugly yet freely fit the barrel, so that the plunger'may readily move lengthwise of the barrel, the main body of the plunger beingot .adiameter to move easily through the ring 13 when seated in the groove 12.. The outer end of the plunger carries a buffer block 16 designed to be enga ed by the door 7, for which reason the bu er block may be made of some yieldable material such as rubber or any other substance which will prevent undue marring of the door 7.
That end of the piston block 14 occupied by the head 15 is entered axially by a screw 17 holding a disk 18 in position to confine a packing cup 1%) against the face of the head 15 with the margins of the cup flat against the inner wall of the barrel 1. Between the screw 17 and the outer margins of the disk 18 the latter is formed on the face remote from the piston with an annular groove 20 in which is seated one end of a spring 21, the other end of which bears against the inner wall of the head 10. Near the head 10 the barrel 1 is provided with a boss 22 through which there extends a threaded passage entering the barrel 1, and this passage is designed to receive the threaded end of a thumb screw 23, the said screw having a suitable manipulating portion such as a milled head common to screws of this charaeter, while along one side of the threaded shank oi. the screw there is a tapered cutaway .21 forming an outlet for air rompresscd within the barrel, this being a common form of throttled air escape passage in door cheeks.
The spring 21 is designed to force the pislton block let to the outer limit of its travel,
this being determined by the engagement of the head 15 with the ring 12. This outward movement of the piston is not to any material extent impeded, since the packing cup 19 readily collapses at the edges suificicntly to allow a flow of air around it to the interior of the barrel 1. The spring 21 need be but a comparatively light spring, since While it. may assist to some extent in checking the inward movement of the piston block 14, it is not designed to provide any very large resistance to such movement. When the door 7 is brought into engagement with the buffer 16, as on a closing movement of the door under the action of the spring the resistance of the spring 21 offers no great impediment to the movement of'the piston toward the closed end of the barrel .1, but it takes only a relatively short movement of the piston 11 to put the air confined with in the barrel 1 under compression suiiicient to retard and even wholly stop the closing movement of the door 7. As it is not the purpose of the check to prevent closing of the door the vent controlled by the screw 23 .is provided, so that the compressed air may slowly escape and the door 7 will ultimately be closed by the action of the spring 8, the rapidity of such closing movement depending upon the adjustment of the screw 23 and the eflective size of the vent controlled thereby.
. Since ordinarily the portion 5 of the rabbet, board under consideration is only about two and one-half inches Wide. and in any event is relatively narrow in door openings where screen doors are provided, the available space for the installation of the door check is much restricted, so that in order to make the cheek effective when its length so necessarily restrict ed, the diameter of the barrel 1 is largely increased over the size customarily emploved, so that the barrel 1 will be from about one and three-(platters to two or more inches in diameter, and, of course, the piston block 14- is of corresponding diameter, except that the major portion of the block is reduced to conform to the restriction of the bore of the barrel 1 defined by the inner diameter of the stop ring 13 sprung into the groove 12. This provides a sufliciently large volume barrel 1, when the piston 1 1 is projected to the full extent designed, to compress to an effective resisting condition with but a relaof air within the tively very small longitudinal movement of the piston and consequently the door 7 is quickly checked to a very moderate speed of closing movement before it reaches the closed position, and even in the event of a strong wind urging the door to the closed position the large diameter check causes the entrapping of so large a body of air that the door is ell'cctively checked by the great resistance of the compressed air which cannot escape with sufiicient rapidity through the vent to release the pressure so that the door could slam.
Because of the short travel of the piston of the check the check is placed relatively close to the hinge connection of the door with the door frame in order that the check may become active while the free end of the door is still a considerable distance from the closed position so that it may retard the door through a longer are of movement than would he the case if the check were placed nearer to the free edge of the door.
The pistcn or plunger 14 is readily made of a single block of wood or other material of large diameter throughout and which may be ot a diameter closely approaching that of the barrel from the head 15 to the free end ot the piston, being reduced in diameter only by an amount equal to the on croachment of the ring 13 upon the bore of the barrel, thus providing a large bearing without the necessity of any head or sup porting spider at such end of the barrel, so that while the circular extent of the bearing for the piston is large, the longitudinal extent: is small and frictional resistance to the movement of the piston into and out of the barrel is reduced. to a minimum and may be easily overcome by the projecting action of the spring 21.
While in some instances the diameter of the barrel may be equal to or closely approximate the length of the barrel, the diameter of the barrel is always more than half the length thereof. While the length or the piston. including the packing ring, is apprcximatcly that of the barrel, the diameter of the. piston is more than half its length. The groove 20 is of a depth to substantially house the sprin -Q1 when the latter is cmm'iressed. so that the piston may approach very closely to the closed end of the barrel at which time the door 7 has become fully closed.
lVhilc the door check is intended primarily for use in connection with a screen door it may be used in other connections, and. moreover. the door check is readily r0- vcrsible, so that it may be changed as desired to engage either the screen door 7, or the main or storm door 9, for when once installed it may be removed, turned about and reinstalled in the reverse position, using the same fastening devices in each instance.
What is claimed is l. A pneumatic door check comprising a barrel of substantially the same internal diameter throughout, and having one end open and of the same diameter as the bore of the cylinder, a piston adapted to the boreof the cylinder, and readily removable means in the cylinder at the open end there of and extending radially into the cylinder to reduce the effective bore thereof, the piston having an axially elongated portion of a diameter and length to move along the bore reducing means in guiding contact therewith throughout the stroke of the piston.
2. A pneumatic door check comprising a barrel, and a piston block adapted to the interior of the barrel and of a length approximating that of the barrel, said barrel having a groove at the end through which the piston block extends, and a retaining ring sprung into the groove to prevent escape of the piston block from the barrel.
3. A door check comprising a barrel closed at one end and at the other end open to the full diameter of the bore of the barrel, a cylindrical piston of a length substantially that of its stroke and having one end movable into and out of the barrel through the open end thereof. the diameter of the piston being substantially the same as the length of its stroke, and means at the open end of the barrel for preventing escape of the inner end of the piston therefrom.
4. A door check comprising a barrel closed at one end and at the other end formed with a bead defining an internal groove, a split ring seated in the groove and encroaching on the bore of the barrel, and a piston block having a head at one end approximating in diameter that of the internal diameter of the barrel, and the remainder of the block being reduced in diai'neter corresponding to the internal diameter of the split ring seated in the groove.
A door check having a barrel and piston lodged therein. with means for normally projecting the piston to a limited extent from the barrel. and a supporting bracket for the barrel having one end inclined with respect to the longitudinal center line of the barrel and bracket to indicate the angle of installation of the check structure with relation to the part to which it is to be applied.
(i. A door check adapted to the space between the rabbets on opposite sides of a tacing board of a door frame, said check having a supporting bracket with one end taporing from the longitudinal center line of the bracket toward the sides thereof, a barre] mounted on the bracket and shorter than In testimony, that I claim the foregoing the width of the facing board between the as my own, 1 have hereto a'lhxed my signa- 1i, rabbots, and a piston of substantially the ture in the presenre of two Witnesses.
length of the barrel, the diameter of the bar- J \MES EDWIN GIBBS rel and piston being proportioned to the length of the barrel to provide a large air Witnesses:
chamber to compensate for the restricted EARL HOFFMAN, stroke of the piston. CHAS. A. NAUGHTON.