P. H. THOMAS. A SINGLE PHASE GAS OR VAPOR ELECTRIC APPARATUS.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE 13, 1903.
hlmfisgg Patented Sept. 15,1914.
2 SHEETfi SHEET 1.
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SINGLE PHASE GAS 0R VAPOR ELECTRIC APPARATUS.
APPLICATION FILED JUNE 13,1903.
Patented Sept. 15, 1914.
2 SHEETSSHEET 2.
75 uvculfob 33 01L ammo 4 0 39 UNITED STATES P TENT OFFICE,
PERCY H. THOMAS, OF PITTSBURGH, PENE'SYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR, BY MESN'E ASSICtN MENTS, TO COOPER HEWITT ELECTRIC COMPANY, OF HOBOKEN, NEW JERSEY, A
CORPORATION OF NEW JERSEY.
' SINGLE-PHASE GAS OR VAPOR ELECTRIC APPARATUS;
Specification of Letters Patent;
Patented Sept. 15, 1914.
Application filed June 13,1903. Seria1 No.161 ,282.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, PnRoY H. THoMAs, a citizen of the UnitedStates, and resident of .Pittsburgh, county of Allegheny, State of appears at the negative electrode of a reluc tance to starting which has now been fully set forth-in various patents'and publications. Owing to the presence of this phenomenon, means are required forbreaking down" the 20 initial reluctance at the negative electrode,
' and such means may be supplied by a current of high potential derived from any source whatsoever and applied either to the terminals of the vapor device or to what is generally called a starting band arranged proximity tothe negative electrode. When apparatus of this character is operated on direct current circuits, it has been customary to apply to the terminals of the apparatus a. momentary current of higher potential than that upon which the apparatus is designed to be operated. In employing alter-- natin'g currents, it is usual to apply a higher potential alternating current derived from the supply circuit to the starting band, which starting band is also preferably present in most types of vapor apparatus. When the high potential current is appliedto the start- 40 mgband, I have found that the relative phase between. the high tension current thus applied and the electro-motivesforce supplied to the terminals may have an important influence on thelstarting of the lamp or otherapparatus. In practice, I have found that certain lamps will start satisfactorily with no phase difference. On the other hand, other lamps under the same or different conditions of operation, may be more readily started by giving a lead or a lag to the high tension current and'I have found a moderate lead to be very favorable in operating certainsizes of commercial lamps.
When the described reluctance to starting has. once been broken down, current may continue to flow through the apparatus provided the applied electro-motive-force is sutficiently high and also provided that the direction of ow be maintained uniformly. When, however, currents of varying value or of alternating direction are applied to 0 the apparatus, the electrode reluctance is liable to be re-formed should the current value drop below a certain minimum, and is certain to be re-formed when the direction of flow is reversed. Thus in operating ap paratus of this class .by means of alternating currents or currents which vary considerably in value, provision hasto tie-made for reinforcing the lower values when the current is of uniform direction and for repeatedly 7i? Q coil in series with the apparatus which will store energy while thei current is increasing and discharg'ethe stored energy or a portion of it in the origihal direction of flow when the current falls. With a choke coil .of sufficient capacity the rising current will be suflicient to maintain current through the negative electrode until thesupply circuit shall again tend to increase the current flow in the proper direc tion. rangement of circuits and apparatus; various organizations have been proposed for preventing the negative alternations from undoing the work of the positives. For example, the amountv of ener from the choke coil is considera ly lessened if a pathbeprovided for the negative alternations through the apparatus by means of a second positive electrode. With such an organization, both the positive and negative I alternations tend to pass through the lamp in the same direction. Meanwhile, the function of the choke coil in delivering energy enough to supply current for the short period between alternations is constantly 100 called in'tofplay." The organization above indicated comprises, among other features, means'fo'r starting gasor vapor apparatus through the application of an initial current of high potential, and also means for stor- 105 big energy derived from the supply circuit,
say in a coke coil, the function of which isto maintain the currentvalue at all times the energy stored on In connection with this general ar-' required above a certain minimum, so that the negative electrode reluctance may not reestablish itself. It might be supposed that in operating the vapor apparatus upon a single phase alternating current, the capacity of the choke coil might have to be considerable, but I have found thatin order to maintain the operation of theapparatus after it has once been started, the choke coil need not be of excessive size. It is desirable, however, that an extra. potential should be supplied to-enable the choke coil inthe first alternation afterstarting to absorb a sufficient amount of energy. so that it may discharge the energy necessary to maintain the lamp over the first zero point, without falling below the minimum current.
It is the object of the present invention to provide means for supplying this extra initial potential, as will presentlyappear, it being understood that the additional voltage thus withdrawn from the source will'generally be removed after the "starting of the apparatus. This makes it possible to obtain economical conditions, during operation,
and provides that the extra potential called into use at the starting of the apparatus shall constitute only a momentary demand upon the system. In order to facilitate the application of the additional voltage, I- ma employ a third positive electrode or ternu- I nal, although it is not an essential feature of the invention. The current produced by the supplementary electro-motive-force may be controlled or suppressed in a number of ways, as by including resistance or inductance in the circuit through which the additional electro-motive-force is supplied; by providing a transformer with considerable magnetic leakage between the primary "and the secondary, the secondary being used to supply the additional eleetro-motive-force; or by mechanically opening or deenergizing the circuit through which the extrapotential is shpplied. The latter method is the one which is generally preferred.
.tro-motive-force, or what is called the extra;
In the accompanying drawings I have illustrated several ways in which the extra potential may .be obtained. Oneof these or- 'ganizations embodies an addition to the winding of a;transformer secondary which is used to .obtain rectified alternations within the apparatus. Another organization embodies'a separate transformer- ,Not'only may the supplementary. or'additional elec :nieansjilst depotential, be supplied by th I scribed, but this high. ten 1on-electro-motive-force whether applied as illustrated in Fig. 4 to the normal lamp terminals or aplied to the starting band, may be obtained rom a winding in the same transformer as either of those referred-to or from'a separate transformer. When using amechanical interruptionof the-circuit supplylng the extra potential, I have found it convenient to a magnetism generated by the current.
1 As a modification of the above apparatus, it is possible to avoid the use of the supple mental electrode by applying to one or-both of the positive electrodes a supplementaryelectro-motive-force and transferring the positive electrode or electrodes to'the normal running point after starting, without the interruption of the circuit. The-high potential at the starting point may be obtained, if desired, through a snap or quicky I break switch just as in a direct current lamp.
In this case it is sometimes necessary to close and open the switch a number of times in order to insure that themechanical break should occur at a favorable ortion of the alternation for producing a lil impulse.
I haveillustrated my invention in the accompanying drawings, in which v Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, are diagrammatic illustrations of my invention as applied to a gas or vapor electric lamp; and Fig. 6 is a diagram of the invention including a gas or vapor converter. In the drawings, 1 is the container of a lamp of the character described above, the
same containing, in this instance, a negative electrode, '5, of. mercury and positive electrodes, 2 and 3, which may be of iron. In
' gh poteptial Figs. 1, 2 and 3, I show a supplemental positIVG-QlGQlZIOdG, 4, whichmay also be of iron. The lamp is provided with a starting band, 6, located in proximity to the negative electrode 5 and variously connected in the difierent figures of the drawings.
The supply circuit for the tween which is arranged the primary, 11, of
nected to the starting band 6 and the other lamp in Fig. I is illustrated by the conductors, 13, 13, be.-
a transformer whose secondary is shown at is connected by a wire, 8, through a choke coil, 7, to the negative electrode 5.. The conductors 13 are joined to the windings, 21,
of an auto-transformer which has a supple- 1 mental winding, 14, as shown. .The winding 21 is connected at its opposite terminals electrodes 2 and 3, while the winding 14 is by means of wires, 9 and 10, to the positive joined by a Wire, 22, to the supplemental joined to the said winding. The conductors electrode 4. At the mid-point between the I terminals of the winding 21, the wire 8' 1s source'ofsingle-phase alternating curren t,' v 4 and when the circuit of the sald source is closed, throwing potential on the primary 11, the secondary wind ng 12 -re-- ceives a high ,voltage, whichis impressed;
upon the'electrode 5 and the starting band '6 insuch a way as strain at, the surface of the. negative electrode, breaking down its resistance to produce a 'critical nuance allowing the positive potential .and one of the electrodes 2, 3 or4 tostart the lamp intooperation. The operation of the lamp is then as follows: Assuming, for example, that the electrode 2 (neglecting the electrode 4 for the moment) has a positive potential with regard to the negative electrode at the time of the-application of the critical strain, current-flows from 2 to 5, reaching finally the proper value for the electro-motlve-force supplied and at the same time storing energy in the choke coil 7. During the latter part of'the first alternation, as the voltage upon the positive electrode 2 falls to zero,
the energy previously stored in the choke coil 7 continues the-flow of current inthe.
, original direction through the coil until the potential upon the electrode 3 becomes positive in its turn, whereupon electrode 3 will tive in the third alternation, when it is utilized to again support the current through the lamp and the choke coil 7, and so on, as long as the lamp operates.
The function of the supplementary winding 14 and the supplementary positive elec-" trode 4 is to supply an additional eleetromotive-force during the alternation within which the critical or starting strain is applied. It is evident that during this first alternation, the current must reach its maximum value after starting from zero, where- I as, when once the lamp is operating normally, this maximum current must be reached in one alternation, startlng, not from zero, but from the minimum value reached during the operation which must at least be theminimum operating current of the lamp." Once the negative electrode resistance of the lamp is broken down suf ficiently to allow an operating current to pass, the extra voltage upon the supplementary positive electrode 4 is no longer required and in fact will cause a waste of energy and a disturbance of the operation of the lamp and should be removed from further operation. This disturbance of the excess of current tending to flow from the extra potential upon the supplementary electrode 4 provided no restraining devices are used. Such disturbsnce of the operation may be avoided, howe er, by the insertion of an i-nductanee device or resistance, 23,
which may, as Fig. 1, conveniently be placed in the circuit of the winding 14. The action of the inductance device or resistance 2.3 is such as to prevent an excessive flow of 1 current after the apparatus has started into operation, at thesame time allowing the full voltage of the source to assist'in the overcoming of the negative electrode resistance since unless the current flow actually increases no voltageyvill be absorbed upon the inductance deviceor resistance 23. The impedance-23 is so proportioned as to allow only a very small current to flow when the apparatus is in 'operation. When the apparatus isto be started, however, since no current flows through it, the full ,potential of the supplementary transformer winding is impressed between the electrodes in the apparatus. It is this tension strain backed by the power of the main positives to deliver currentwhich breaks down the electrode resistance. Enough current must, of course, be allowed to flow through this impedance 23 when the apparatus is in operation to establish 'an initial current, in the choke coil 7.
Referring to Fig. 2, the transformer primary 11 is connected between one terminal of the coil 14 and the conductor 8. In the circuit of the primary is included the movable element of a switch, 15, which constitutes an armature for the choke coil 7 The winding 14 and the operation of the lamp would result from the a the supplemental electrode 4 1s here omitted,
andthat the conductors 9 and 10 are j oined organization illustrated in Fig.2 is in other respects similar to that shown in Fig. 1, ex-
system as soon as the operation begins. It
is clear that when the supply circuit is closed and current is caused to traverse the primary 11, the secondary 12 will be energized, as before, and the choke coil will also receive current. In response to the described action, the movable element of the switch 15 will be Withdrawn from contact with the stationary element thereof and the primary 11 will be cut out. o y l v In Fig. 3 the extr-a potentialapphed to the lamp is supplied by a transformer 24, 25, the latter being the secondary and having its respective terminals connected to the supplemental electrode 4 and to the -elec-. trode 5. The other connections are shown clearly upon the drawing. In this arrangement of .eircuits I may. include the inductance or resistance 23 in'the' circuit of the primary 24, its flmctions being the same as already described in connection with Fig. 1.-'
Referring to Fig. 4, it will be noted that to the windings of the auto-transformer 21 starting band is connected by -a wire 26 with the conductor 9,while ashunt circuit 27' .containing a quick break switch 16-and a resistance 17 (which maybe in the form of an inductance device or reactance-coil) is connected between the conductors 9 and 8.
In this figure the switch arm 19 at the left is represented at starting position, while' the corresponding arm at-the right is represented as having been moved from the starting position to the opposite extreme position. An extra winding 14 is here added at both ends of the winding 21, and each is connected through one or'the other of the adjustable resistances to a separate positive electrode in the'lamp. With theswitches in the starting position, the supply circuit '13, 13 is closed and the snap or quick-break switch 16 is operated. By the action of the switch 16 and the choke coil 7, a high poten-' tial impulse is created at the starting band and this is reinforced by the energy developed in the windings 14, 14. The lamp 3 having been once started into operation inopposite in phase.
this way, the switches 19 are moved from the starting position to the operating" position. (the latter being illustrated, as already explained, by the switch at theright hand side of Fig. 4) and the operation continues with the windings 14:, 14 disused.
In the figures already descrlbed, there are impressed between the neutral point and the two main positives, respectively, two alternating electro-motive-forces exactly These are obtained by connecting the neutral point of the supply circuit 'to the negative electrode and utilizing the supply mains as the two positives.
' In Fig. 5 the same result is attained in a slightly difierent manner which allows the full line voltage to be impressed between the neutral point and one positive. In this figure, as before, we'have two exactly opposite electro-motive-forces impressed between the negative electrode and the two main positive electrodes of the lamp. One of these is the supply electro-motive-force.
itself, the other is a similar electro-motiveforce obtained by means of a transformer which allows'its direction to be reversed. It is evidently possible to utilize another winding, as 14, ,up'on the same core as the 22, thus practically deen'erg'izing that part amazes of the circuit.":In'thisfigure I also show means forcreating a phase difference between'the current applied to the starting band 6 and that applied to the supplementary electrode 4. In practice, I find it advantageous to give to the current applied to the starting band a slight lead or lag, depending upon the circuit conditions. Such a lag can be accomplished, asfin Fig. 1, by
means of a spark-gap such as is shown at 35 oreither a lead or a lag may be secured by such means as are illustrated in Fig. 6,
Where the primary 37 of a transformer, 36, a
is coupled up between the supply wires 13, 13, while the secondary, 38, is connected between one of the conductors 13 and the startingband 6. In shunt to the primary I may arrange a resistance, 39, and in series I therewith an inductance, device, 40, the same being so proportioned as/to give the news sary lead orv lag to the secondary current. The arrangement shown is so devised as to give a lag to the secondary current, whereas- 4 by reversing the position of the resistance 39 and the inductance 40, a lead would be given to the current. The current'fiowing through .the coil,'40, lags behind the electro motive force of the mains, 13, in virtue of the inductance of this coil. After-traversingthe coil,
40, this current divides in two parts one.
through the winding, 37 this part constituting the magnetizing current of the transformer, 36, and the other part traversing the resistance, 39. Since these two branches are in parallel, they musthave the same voltage impressed upon them. Now, since the branch, 37 is inductive and the branch, 39, is non-inductive, relatively speaking, the current in 37 will lag behind the current in 39. Therefore, since the current in 4:0 lags behind the voltage in the mains, 13, the magnetizing current in 37 will lag still farther behind. If, now, a resistance be substituted for the coil, 40, and an inductance be substituted for the resistance, 39,we have a different condition. In
this case as far as the resistance is concerned, the phase of the current therein is the same as that of the mains 13. The current through this resistance will as before divide into two parts, one part traversing the magnetizing winding, 37, and the other part traversing the coil which has replaced the resistance, 39. If, now, there be a difference in the power factor between the winding, 37 and the coil in parallel to it, as there will be in actual practice if the coil be made as shpwn' at 40 with an open circuit magnetic core (thus producing approximately 90 degreeslag), the current in the magnetizin winding, 37 will be in advance of that in t e winding, 39, therefore it will be in advance of the electro motive force of the mains, 13, since the resistance in place of the coil, 40, will keep the total current in phase with the voltage, 13. The form of vapordevice illustrated in this figure is that of a converter, being different in this respect from the device illustrated in the other figures.
It is known that the .critical strain may be applied to the apparatus through other instrumentalities than the starting band, and if desired any means equivalent to the starting band may be substituted therefor.
In a divisional application filed by me August 11, 1903, Serial Number 169,091, claims are made upon the apparatus described herein.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a system of electrical distribution the combination with a"mercuryvapor apparatus requiring a critical starting strain, an alternating supply therefor and means for impressing such critical strain upon such apparatus, of means for varying the relative time of the application of said critical strain, such means including a potential raising transformer and an exciting circuit therefor consisting of phase controlling means in series with the transformer primary across.
the alternating current supply and a second phase controlling. means in shunt thereto.
2. In a system of electrical distribution the combination with a mercury vapor apparatus requiring a critical starting strain, an alternating supply therefor and means for impressing such critical strain upon such apparatus, of means for varying the relativetime of the application of said critical strain, such means including a potential raising transformer and an exciting circuit therefor together with an inductance in series therewith across the said source and a resistance in shunt thereto.
3. A starting system, comprising a mercury vapor device, a cathode therein, a starting band for applying a critical strain to said cathode, a transformer for applying a high voltage-to said startin band and means for supplying said trans ormer from the mains supplying the vapor-device and means f /varying the phase' of current supplied by said transformer relative to the supply circuit. I
. 4. A starting system comprising a mercury vapor device, a cathode therein, a starting band for applying a critical strain to said cathode, a transformer for applying a high voltage to said starting band and means for supplying said transformer from the'mains supplying the vapor device and means for varying the phase of current supplied by said transformer relative to the supply circuit, said last named means including resistance and inductance in shunt and in series with the primary Winding of said transformer. r
5. A starting system for a mercury vapor apparatus having a cathode requiring a critical starting straln, comprising means for applying a high voltage impulse to said cathode, said means including a transformer connected to the source supplying said vapor electric device and means for controlling the phase of the voltage of said transformer, such means comprising serially connected devices for determining the general phase of the magnetizing current of said transformer and a shunt circuit of difl'erentcharacteris tics from said primary winding for adjusting the phase of the current in said primary winding to lag or to lead as'required.
6. A starting means for a mercury vapor apparatus having a cathode requiring a critical starting strain, comprising means for applying a cathode, said means comprising a transformer connected to the source supplying said vapor .electric dqvice and means for controlling the phase of the voltage of said means comprising an inductance in series eral phase of the magnetizing current of said transformer and a circuit 0 different characteristics from said primary winding for adjusting the phase lag of'the current m said primary winding to lag or to lead as re'uired.
igned at'New York, and..State of of June, A. D. 1903. I
-. PERCY .H. THOMAS.
Tnos H. BROWN, Jr., Gnonen H. STOGKBRJDGE.
York, in the county of New New York, this 8th day high voltage impulse to said